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Atmospheric CO2

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Source: NOAA ESRL

UCS: There are enough reserves to electrify the global transportation sector using current technology if a high amount of battery recycling occurs.

November 22, 2022

UCS - Union of Concerned Scientists presents research which shows that there are enough reserves of lithium, cobolt and nickel if recycling of EV batteries is scaled up.

Without recycling, demand in 2060 will exceed available cobolt reserves and will require about 90% of lithium reserves. Important: 'Reserves' are resources that are economical to extract. Without recycling, material costs will increase.

Recycling also has environmental benefits: "By using recycled instead of newly mined materials, reduction of climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions is approximately 64%"

The chart shows that almost half of the cobolt and nickel and a quarter of the lithium required in the US in 2050 can be supplied through recycling of used EV batteries.

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IEA Global Methane Tracker: Methane is responsible for about 30% of the current rise in global temperature

November 21, 2022

IEA Global Methane Tracker 2022 states that reduction in methane (CH4) emissions are key to limit near-term warming and to improve air quality. Annual global methane emissions are around 580 Mt, of which 40% is from natural sources such as wetlands. The remaining 60% is from human activity.

The global warming impact of methane is 28 times that of CO2 in a 100-year perspective, and 80 times theat of CO2 in a 20-year perspective. In other words, 580 Mt CH4 emissions equals 16.24 Gt CO2 in a 100-year perspective.

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Total greenhouse gas emissions

November 21 2022

PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency presents an overview of total greenhouse gas emissions for the last 50 years. This includes CO2 methane (CO4) nitrous oxide (N20) and fluorinated gases (F-gases).

Global emissions decreased by 3.7% in 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic recession.

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Global Carbon Project: CO2 emissions by region

November 17, 2022

The November 11 report from Global Carbon Project includes data on emissions from countries and regions of the world.

Note that this chart does not include land-use or land-use change emissions, and it does not include any other greenhouse-gas emissions.

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Global Carbon Project: CO2 emissions back at pre-pandemic levels, expecting 1% increase in emissions in 2022

November 16, 2022

In the November 11 report from Global Carbon Project we see that global CO2 emissions are back at pre-pandemic levels.

"Preliminary data for 2022 show an increase in fossil CO2 emissions relative to 2021 of +1.0% (range 0.1% to 1.9%) globally, primarily driven by growth in oil use from the delayed rebound of aviation since the COVID-19 pandemic."

Global Carbon Project says that the rate of emissions increase has been about 0.5% in the last decade, compared to a rate of increase of 3% per year in the decade prior.

Note that this chart does not include land-use or land-use change emissions, and it does not include any other greenhouse-gas emissions.

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CO2 levels over the last 420 000 years

November 16, 2022

This chart contains three datasets:

  • The "Vostok" ice core drilled in Antarctica in 1998 as a collaborative project between France, Russia and USA. The CO2 data goes back over 400.000 years, and shows how CO2 levels in the air has varied between 180 and 280ppm through four climate cycles.
  • The "Law Dome" dataset from three ice cores drilled at Law Dome, Antarctica, which shows the atmospheric CO2 levels over the last 2000 years. The "Law Dome" project also has data on atmospheric CH4 (methane) and N20.
  • The "Mauna Loa" dataset for the last 50 years, from NOAA/Earth Systems Research Labs
The datasets show the dramatic increase in atmospheric CO2 levels since the beginning of the industrial revolution.

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Norway: Solar PV installation by month

October 23, 2022

energiogklima.no reports record installation of Solar PV panels in Norway. Data from shows a strong increase with 16 MW of capacity installed in the month of July, 2022. Total installed Solar PV capacity in Norway is now about 250 MW.

According to the the web-site, the record high cost of electric power is the main driver for the growth in Solar PV installations.

Norway still lags far behind Sweden and Denmark. Installed capacity in Sweden was 1798 MW at end of 2021, and in Denmark it was 2344 MW end of 2021.

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Carbon Capture and Storage in 2022: CCS captures about 0.1% of global CO2 emissions. Most of the captured CO2 is used to extract more oil

October 18,2022

According to Global CCS Institute there are 30 large-scale CCS projects in operation at end-of-2021, capturing 42.6 million tons CO2 annually, an increase over 2019 (38 MtCO2). The captured CO2 is about 0.1% of global CO2 emissions.

Most of the captured CO2 is used for EOR - Enhanced Oil Recovery: Injection of CO2 into oil wells in order to extract more oil. IEA estimates that this accounts for an extra 500.000 barrels of oil per day, which equals 78 million tons CO2 emissions per year.

According to Carbon capture and storage at the end of a lost decade in order to meet IEA's sustainable development scenario, 5.6 gigatonnes CO2 per year must be captured and stored by 2050.

The chart lists all commercial operational CCS projects as of 2022.

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WWF/ZSL Living Planet Index: Populations of monitored wildlife reduced by 69% on average since 1970

October 16, 2022

In the Living Planet Report 2022 WWF and ZSL (Zoological Society of London) writes that the relative abundance of wildlife populations has been reduced by 69% since 1970. Latin America is hardest hit with a 94% reduction in wildlife. Freshwater wildlife has seen the greatest global decline with 83%

The Index tracks almost 32000 wildlife populations.

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Atmospheric CO2 levels are increasing

September 24, 2022

NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Systems Research Laboratory) operates the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, and are collects atmospheric data every hour since the 1950s. The data shows how atmospheric CO2 levels are steadily increasing. In pre-industrial times, the CO2 levels varied between 180ppm and 280ppm.

Notice the saw-tooth pattern in the chart: There are more forests in the Northern hemisphere than in the Southern hemisphere. During the northern winter, the forests release CO2 to the atmospere. When spring comes in the north, forests starts consuming CO2 as part of photosynthesis and this reduces the level in the atmosphere.

The chart is updated monthly.

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CarbonBrief: Overview of 20 studies of GHG emissions from electric-car battery production. Electricity mix at manufacturing location matters

August 9, 2022

CarbonBrief has summarized 20 studies on emissions from electric-car battery production. One of the findings is that the manufacturing location is an important factor in determining the CO2-footprint of these batteries. As some Asian countries rely more on coal for electricity generation, the result is that batteries made in Asia have a bigger CO2-footprint than batteries made in Europe or USA.

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IEA: Strong economic growth, cold winter, warmer summer - electricity generation increased by more than 6% in 2021, the largest increase since 2010

August 7, 2022

IEA reports that global electricity demand increased by more than 6% in 2021, straining supply chains for coal and gas resulting in increased prices.

The chart shows the year-on-year change in electricity generation. The numbers for 2022 and later are IEA estimates.

The biggest increase in electricity generation came from coal power plants.

Units are in terawatt hours, TWh

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Lice cycle analysis of LNG exported from USA to Europe/Asia for electricity generation

August 5, 2022

NETL published an updated life cycle analysis LNG export from the US to Europe, with comparisons to regional Eurpoean coal and Russian pipeline gas.

The units are gram CO2 equivalents per kWh of electricity generated.

This chart shows the emissions in a 20-year global warming time frame. The data for coal is for regionally produced coal. A key assumption is 4.1% leakage rate for Russian pipeline gas

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Life cycle analysis of LNG exported from USA to Europe/Asia for electricity generation

August 5, 2022

NRDC has analysed five life cycle studies of green house gas emissions from gas produced in USA, exported to Europe and Asia, and then used for electricity generation. The studies were from

  • National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • University of Calgary
  • The Spark Library
The units are gram CO2 equivalents per kWh of electricity generated.

A key difference in the studies are the methane leakage rates: Carnegie Mellon assumes 2-4%, NETL assumes 0.7 to 1.6% leakage.

This chart shows the emissions in a 20-year global warming time frame. The data for coal is for regionally produced coal.

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CEENERGYNEWS: Pipeline gas vs LNG, climate impact

August 4, 2022 | Updated November 16, 2022

CEENERGYNEWS refers to a study by Sphera, which shows that the environmental impact of LNG imports to South-East Europe are vastly higher than pipeline gas imports. The study looked at LNG imports from Algeria, Australia, Qatar, and USA, which had between 61% and 176% more emissions than pipeline gas imports from Russia via the TurkStream pipeline.

Liquefaction of gas is the main reason. However, the LNG carrier (ship) is also a major contributor for imports from Australia and USA simply because of the fuel used by the ships.

  • Numbers are for a 100 year global warming potential
  • Units are gram CO2 equivalents per MJ (megajoule) of primary energy
  • The chart does not include the emissions from electricity generation
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EIA: CO2 emissions per kWh of US electricity generation

August 4, 2022

The US Energy Information Agency EIA writes: In 2020, US power plants burning coal, oil and gas generated about 62% of total electricity generation, and accounted for 99% of US electricity related CO2-emissions.

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Standard emissions factors for some common fossil fuels

August 4, 2022

This chart is an excerpt of a list regularly published by Netherlands Enterprise Agency, we have used the January 2020 version.

The units are grams CO2 per MJ of energy. This is of course the same as kilograms of CO2 per GJ of energy.

The various grades of coal ranked from high to low are: Anthracite (hard coal), Coking coal, Bitumenous coal, Subbitumenous coal, Lignite (brown coal).

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CO2 emissions per kWh of electricity for different fuels and technologies

August 4, 2022

Dr Volker Quaschning, Professor for renewable energy systems at Berlin University of Applied Sciences lists the specific CO2 emissions for different fuels for 1 kWh of electricity produced.

The emissions calculations "include upstream chain emissions", and are from the publication UBA 2019 - Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energieträger 2018 (p. 42f.)

UBA is the German Environment Agency, a federal government agency.

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Greenhouse gas emissions Norway: Emissions in 2021 same as 2020

July 3, 2022

While CO2 emissions have increased from 35 to 41 million tons per year since 1990, emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from the aluminum and magnesium industries are now close to 0. Emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) from air-con and cooling systems have increased, but this should be sharply reduced soon as new coolants with lower global warming potential are used. More on this at Ministry of Climate and Environment.

Oil and gas production represents about 27% of total Norwegian emissions. These emissions are expected to be reduced in the future at the cost of higher global emissions, when on-shore hydroelectric power replaces off-shore gas turbines for powering oil and gas extraction. Numbers are in million tons CO2 equivalents.

Norway has committed to reducing emissions in 2030 by 50% compared to 1990.

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Global Carbon Project: CO2 emissions from fossil fuels decreased by 5.4% in 2020 due to the Covid pandemic. Emissions are expected to rebound close to pre-Covid levels in 2021.

Updated June 13, 2022

According to fossil fuel and cement production emissions data provided by the Global Carbon Project there was a record decrease in emissions in 2020, 1.9 million tonnes of CO2 (GtCO2). Emissions are projected to grow 4.9% in 2021, or 1.6 GtCO2.

While emissions for EU and USA will remain under 2019 levels in 2021, emissions from China are projected to be 5.5% above 2019 levels in 2021. Coal remains the number one source of CO2.

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BloombergNEF: Cost of battery packs reduced by 80% since 2013

April 13, 2022

BloombergNEF's annual battery price survey finds that battery packs fell by 6% from 2020 to 2021 and by 80% from 2013 to 2021. However they also write that increasing commodity prices are having an impact on prices in the near term.

The survey looks at battery packs and battery cells for electric vehicles, buses and energy storage projects. Battery pack prices were lowest in China at $111 per kWh, prices in US and EU were 40 to 60% higher.

BloombergNEF also says: "...by 2024 average pack prices should be below $100/kWh. It is at around this price point that automakers should be able to produce and sell mass-market EVs at the same price (and with the same margin) as comparable internal combustion vehicles in some markets"

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Cost of EU Emissions Allowances

March 3, 2022 | Chart updates daily

The EU ETS (Emissions Trading System) covers all EU member states plus Norway and Liechtenstein. Companies in the power generation and manufacturing sectors are required by EU law to purchase emission allowances for their greenhouse gas emissions. These allowances may be traded on the open market. There is a cap on the number of allowances in the market. The number of allowances is reduced over time, forcing a reduction in emissions.

The chart shows the market closing price of WisdomTree Carbon ETC (exchange traded commodity) which is designed to track the value of EU Emissions Allowances. The Y-axis is the approximate price per EU Emissions Allowance in Euros per ton of CO2-equivalents.

The major drop in price in late February 2022 was due to the russian invasion of Ukraine.

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Cost of Energy Production in Norway, 2021 and 2030: Onshore wind least expensive. Solar less expensive than fossil-fuels

February 11, 2022

NVE, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, regularly updates assumptions on energy production for various technologies. The chart is based on data from January 31, 2022.

The chart shows LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for new installations in 2021 and 2030, in NOK per kWh. LCOE is the cost per kWh for the entire lifetime of a new electricity generating plant, and includes investments, operations and fuels. LCOE excludes tax incentives.

Onshore wind is currently the least expensive energy source for new installations, and will continue to decrease in cost dramatically over the next decade. Perhaps surprisingly, even in Norway solar photovoltaic ground installations are becoming competitive and will be less expensive than all other electricity sources except for onshore wind.

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Atmospheric methane levels are increasing

Novermber 2, 2021 | Chart updates monthly

Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas, with a global heating potential 25 times that of CO2. Sources of methane are natural gas manufacturing, agriculture, waste management, coal mining and more. About two thirds of methane emissions are from human activities. NOAA tracks the atmospheric levels of methane using a global network of monitoring sites.

The US Environmental Protection Agency EPA has a good overview of the various greehouse gases and their impact.

Methane levels are measured in ppb (parts per billion). The chart is updated monthly.

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World population will stabilize at about 11 billion in 2100

Noveber 1, 2021

World population is currently 7.7 billion. The UN projects that the number of people on earth will reach about 11 billion in year 2100, and will then remain stable.

Virtually all the future population growth will be in Africa, where the population will grow by 3 billion from 1.3 to 4.3 billion.

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Global gas production is accelerating

October 31, 2021

According to October 2020 data from the US Energy Information Administration EIA, global production of natural gas is accelerating. Other charts on our site confirm this, and show that gas is in fact the main driver of increased CO2 emissions globally, ahead of coal and oil.

Production numbers are in BCM - Billion cubic meters

Note: EIA uses the term Eurasia to denote the countries in the former Soviet Union

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Coal production declined from 2019 to 2020

October 30, 2021

According to August 2021 data from the US Energy Information Administration EIA, global coal production declined in 2020 compared to 2019. Peak coal production was in 2013. China alone represents 45% of total global coal production. US coal production is slowly declining.

The chart shows annual coal production in million metric tons since 1980. For more on peak coal, read Forbes article on coal demand

Note: EIA uses the term Eurasia to denote the countries in the former Soviet Union

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Will the Covid-19 pandemic cause a reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels? No.

October 29, 2021

With reduced travel and reduced economic activity, global CO2 emissions might be lower than previous years. However, even slightly reduced CO2 emissions add to the overall CO2 levels in the atmosphere.

The chart uses data from NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, Colorado, USA and shows the atmospheric CO2 levels for each of the last 10 years. Ever since measurements started there has been a consistent increase in atmospheric CO2 of about 0.5 - 0.6% per year.

The atmospheric CO2 levels continues increasing year over year, as indicated by the upper line in the chart. This chart is updated daily based on measurements from the Mauna Loa Observatory.

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Global electricity generation, steady increase in Asia

October 27, 2021

This chart is based on data from the US Energy Information Administration EIA. The increase in global electricity generation is mainly due to China.

Figures in this chart are in 1000 TWh (terawatt hours)

Note: EIA uses the term Eurasia to denote the countries in the former Soviet Union

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Electricity generation: Natural gas is 100 times more deadly than renewables. Coal is 1000 times more deadly than renewables

October 7, 2021

University of Oxford's Our World in Data has looked at the number of deaths per TWh (terawatt-hour) of electricity generated from different sources. Data includes accidents and longer term effects due to pollution and radiation, but does not include effects of CO2 emissions and global warming. Brown coal is the deadliest power-generator with more than 32 deaths per TWh, mainly due to air pollution. This is 1000 times as many deaths as wind, hydro and solar. For the same amount of energy generated, even natural gas causes about 100 times as many deaths as renewable sources.

Nuclear power has a relatively low mortality rate, even when the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are included. Our World in Data uses the IAEA/WHO estimate for Chernobyl-related deaths, 4000. This chart uses a higher estimate, 45.000, based on the TORCH report

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Global oil production: almost 100 mb/d (million barrels per day) in 2019, 92 mb/d in 2020 due to Covid-19

May 25, 2021

According to April 30 2021 data from the US Energy Information Administration EIA, global oil production is now about 92 million barrels per day, down from 98 mb/d in 2019.

According to the International Energy Agency IEA , global oil demand will reach 104 million barrels per day in 2026. The growth in demand will come from emerging and developing countries, with Asian oil demand increasing sharply. OECD demand is not expected to return to pre-Covid levels.

Note: EIA uses the term Eurasia to denote the countries in the former Soviet Union

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And now some good news: The ozone hole is (slowly) shrinking

February 23, 2021

Ozone is a colorless gas present in the upper atmosphere which absorbs UV radiation from the sun. Reduced atmospheric ozone leads to sunburn, eye damage and skin cancer. Without any ozone at all there would be no life on earth. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) gases typically used in refrigerators destroy ozone molecules. In 1989, all UN members ratified the Montreal Protocol , agreeing to phase out the production of ozone depleting gases.

NASA Ozone Watch tracks the size of the ozone hole over the Antarctic and the Arctic. The Antarctic ozone hole reaches its peak size in September/October. The chart shows the mean size of the hole during this period, in millions of square km.

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Arctic temperatures are increasing faster than the global average: +5° since 1900

April 30, 2021

Data from The Norwegian Meteorological Institute and The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services indicate that temperatures in the Arctic, as measured at Svalbard Airport (78.24 degrees North), are now at least 5°C higher than 50-100 years ago. The increased temperature in the Arctic leads to thawing of the permafrost, which in turn releases CO2 and methane currently trapped in the permafrost.

Annual mean temperature for 1961-1990 was -6.7°C according to yr.no

The report Climate in Svalbard 2100 by NCCS is an excellent overview of future climate impact in the Arctic.

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Sea levels have increased 250mm since 1880, current rate of increase: 50mm per decade

April 30, 2021

Global mean sea levels have increased by over 200mm since the late 1800's. Data from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is updated continously and show a statistically significant acceleration since measurements started.

The dataset covering 1880-2009 is based on measurements from a large number of stations (38 stations in 1900, 235 stations in the 1980s). The dataset from 1993 and onwards uses satellite technology. Units in mm (millimeters). Chart is updated monthly.

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Food production and greenhouse gas emissions: Data from 119 countries and 38000 farms

April 30, 2021

Ourworldindata has an excellent article based on Poore and Nemecek 2018, based on data from 38000 farms in 119 countries. This is the most thorough analysis of farming and green house gas emissions to date.

The data represents global averages, hence there may be significant local differences. Interestingly, at a global level transport represents a small amount of the GHG emissions.

The data also shows that nuts and a few other foods have a negative land use change figure, as carbon is stored in the trees. Most other food sources require deforestation.

Data is reported as greenhouse gas emissions in kilograms of CO2-equivalents per 1 kilogram of food product.

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Plastic Waste: Top Countries 2016

April 29 2021

According to research by K.L.Law et.al. the top plastic waste producing countries in the world are USA and United Kingdom. USA generates 130 kg plastic waste per person every year - this is about 2.5 kg per person per week.

While EU citizens generate less than half of the waste compared to Americans it is still more than 1 kg per week for every person. India and China are also big polluters but not on a per capita basis with about 20 kg and 16 kg per person per year.

The units in this chart are kg per person per year.

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OECD/FAO: US meat consumption at 3 times world average and 30 times that of some developing countries

April 27, 2021

OECD/FAO agricultural outlook shows how western countries consume far more meat than the world average. Top meat consuming countries are USA, Israel, Argentina, Australia with 90-100 kg meat per capita per year. Argentina is the top beef-consuming country with almost 40 kg beef per capita. Israel is top poultry consumer with 64 kg per capita.

Consumption data is reported in kilograms per capita, using ready-to-cook retail weight.

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OECD/FAO: Global meat consumption keeps increasing, but consumption in 2019 was reduced due to African Swine Fever outbreak in Asia

April 26, 2021

OECD/FAO agricultural outlook shows how meat consumption is increasing globally. The reduction in consumption in 2019 is due to the African Swine Fever outbreak in Asia.

Consumption data is reported in kilograms per capita, using ready-to-cook retail weight.

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Carbon Capture and Storage in 2020: CCS captures about 0.1% of global CO2 emissions. Most of the captured CO2 is used to extract more oil

April 19, 2021

According to Global CCS Institute there are 26 large-scale CCS projects in operation at end-of-2020, capturing 38 million tons CO2 annually, no increase over 2019. The captured CO2 is less than 0.1% of global CO2 emissions.

Most of the captured CO2 (30 million tons) is used for EOR - Enhanced Oil Recovery: Injection of CO2 into oil wells in order to extract more oil. IEA estimates that this accounts for an extra 500.000 barrels of oil per day, which equals 78 million tons CO2 emissions per year.

According to Carbon capture and storage at the end of a lost decade in order to meet IEA's sustainable development scenario, 5.6 gigatonnes CO2 per year must be captured and stored by 2050.

The chart lists all commercial operational CCS projects as of 2020. Those in red color use captured CO2 for EOR. Those in grey have stopped operations.

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European Medicines Agency: Sales of antibiotics for food-producing animals in 31 European countries

March 25, 2021

A 2020 report from EMA shows that sales of antibiotics declined by 34% between 2011 and 2018. Figures are reported as 'mg per PCU', where 1 PCU is a metric ton of slaughtered animals (includes farmed fish).

Usage of antibiotics varies widely between countries.

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Eindhoven University: Battery electric cars have at least 50% lower life-time CO2 emissions on standard EU electricity mix

March 2, 2021

A 2019 report from Eindhoven University 2019 shows that battery electric cars have significantly lower CO2 emissions compared to similar fossil-fueled cars over their lifetime using the EU electricity mix.

Key assumptions: Driving distance 250.000 km. Battery manufacturing: 85 kg CO2 per kWh. Fossil fuel consumption based on spritmonitor.de and US EPA. Well-to-tank emissions add 30% to tailpipe emissions. Emissions per litre: 3310g (diesel), 3140g (gasoline). EU eletricity generation emissions: 250g CO2e/kWh.

The report assumes an EU electricity mix is used, but also that this electricity mix will continue its trend towards lower CO2 emissions. The Polestar report below does not make this assumption, and probably overestimates the emissions of electric cars.

Units on the Y-axis are number of tons CO2 equivalents.

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Polestar 2 battery electric vehicle life-cycle analysis: Lower CO2 emissions than a comparable petrol/gasoline powered car

March 1, 2021

In their own 2019 report, Polestar says that the Polestar 2 BEV (battery electric vehicle) has lower CO2 emissions during its lifetime than a Volvo XC40 ICE (internal combustion engine).

Assumptions in the report: Cars are driven 200.000 km in their lifetime. Chinese electricity mix is used for Polestar 2 manufacturing. Polestar 78kWh/350kg battery cells are manufactured in China and Korea. Emissions for the XC40 163 gCO2/km includes 'well-to-tank' related emissions for petrol/gasoline. Electricity use Polestar: 198 Wh/km

The report finds that if the electricity is generated by wind power then the Polestar generates less than half of the CO2 emissions of an XC40 petrol/gasoline powered car. If the electricity is generated using an EU electricity mix then the emissions savings over the lifetime of the car is about 27%.

Units on the Y-axis are number of tons CO2 equivalents.

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Bitcoin power consumption is about 0.5% of global electricity consumption

February 17, 2021

This chart shows the Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index (CBECI) as estimated by the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance. While the power used by the Bitcoin blockchain varies with transactions, if Bitcoin power consumption is 120 TWh per year, this is almost 0.5% of global electricity generation which was about 25 000 TWh in 2018 (see another chart on this page).

The chart is updated daily.

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NASA: 2020 and 2016 were the warmest years on record; 1.2°C higher than global average surface temperature in the late 1800's.

January 15, 2021

The NASA GISTEMPv4 dataset shows that the global average surface temperature in 2020 was equal to the temperature in 2016 - these are the two warmest years ever.

The HadCRUT4 dataset from Climatic Research Unit, Univ of East Anglia and Hadley Centre (UK Met Office) shows the same trend. Note that the HadCRUT dataset refers to the average of 1961-1990, so it is slightly offset compared to the NASA dataset. This chart is updated monthly.

The UAH dataset from NSSTC, University of Alabama uses 1981-2010 as the reference so it offset from the other datasets, but is shows a similar increase in global temperatures.

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Electrical and electronic waste in 2019: 7.3 kg per person on earth. Africa: 2.5kg per person, Norway: 24kg per person

October 7, 2020

The Global E-Waste Statistics Partnership has published the Global E-Waste Monitor 2020 which shows that in 2019, the world generated 53.6 million tons of e-waste, or 7.3 kg of e-waste per person on earth.

The amount of e-waste generated has grown by 20% since 2014, and is expected to keep growing. Rich countries generate more e-waste per person than poor countries, with Norway generating the most. About 17.4% of all e-waste is documented to be recycled, unchanged since 2014.

The numbers in the chart are kilograms of waste per capita per year.

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Greenhouse Gas emissions by sector, 2016

September 17, 2021

This chart uses data from World Resources Institute and shows which sectors greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N20, etc) emissions originate from.

WRI provides an even more detailed analysis into each sector. As an example, while 15.9% of emissions are from transport, road transport is by far the largest contributor (11.9%) with air transport at 1.9% and ship at 1.7%. Rail contributes only 0.4%

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Covid-19 deaths per million inhabitants: Top 20 countries

September 16, 2020 | Chart updates daily

This chart uses data from Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (JHU CSSE) and shows the current top 20 countries hardest hit by Covid-19 in terms of confirmed deaths per one million inhabitants. Countries with less than 50000 inhabitants are not included.

This chart is updated every 24 hours. JHU CSSE updates their data around midnight UTC, this chart is automatically updated shortly thereafter.

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Covid-19 confirmed deaths per day, averaged over 7 days

September 16, 2020 | Chart updates daily

This chart uses data from Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (JHU CSSE) and shows the daily number of confirmed Covid-19 Coronavirus deaths, averaged over 7 days. The chart is updated every 24 hours.

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Cost of electricity generation in the United States in 2025: Solar photovoltaic least expensive technology

September 10, 2020

A report from the US Energy Information Administration has estimated the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) generation for new plants coming online in the United States in 2025. LCOE includes all aspects of building and running plants such as financial costs, fuel, operations, management and more.

Photovoltaic solar plants will be the least expensive, with roughly the same costs as geothermal, combined cycle natural gas, and onshore wind turbines.

Coal-fired plants will remain an expensive option. As another post on our site shows, offshore wind costs are decreasing rapidly but remain high in the near term.

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Cost of renewable power generation decreasing sharply, now competitive with fossil fuel based power generation

September 9, 2020

IRENA has published a detailed study on the cost of utility-scale power generation at a global level based on renewable resources. The report shows a clear trend in LCOE (levelised cost of electricity, which includes financial costs, operations, management etc) for renewable power generation: New solar and wind power plants are now less expensive than most coal-fired plants. Since 2019, the cost of utility scale solar power has decreased by 82%

According to IRENA, the comparable costs for fossil fuel based power plants varies from 0.05 $/kWh (new Chinese coal-fired plants located close to coal mines) to 0.177 $/kWh.

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